socio linguistic analysis of the settlers in the brazilian amazonкупить товары для дома не дорого:
Revision with unchanged content. The Amazon is home to a rainbow of social categories: numerous groups with different forms of settlement, integration, and occupation. The Amazon is shown to have experienced significant change in recent years resulting from development efforts undertaken in the region. Livelihood, settlement patterns, land use and land tenure, economic activities, and social stratification have been altered. Elements of this alteration are reflected in the terms used to name rural Amazonians. In this respect, Brazilian Portuguese offers an amazing plenitude of terms. So far, defining the various forest dwellers and identifying correct equivalents for English usage has caused debate and continues to remain fuzzy. Terms are used interchangeably, glossing over important differences. If researchers and associates of projects are to take seriously the Amazonian dwellers, then it is important to understand much better the backgrounds and historical context employed in the Portuguese terms. To this end, this study approaches the task from a socio-linguistic perspective, identifying the various rural settlers in the Amazon and examining the terms used to designate them from a translation-oriented point of view.
Legal authorities alone are helpless in the interpretation of certain lexical items in legal drafting.Legal knowlege is dependent substantially on linguistic knowledge in spite of the long held view of legal authorities that the law should not be made subservient to grammar. In this compelling book, the author highlights the centrality of modal verbs to the understanding of constitutional provisions, using the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as example. The study relies on the pragmatic insights of speech acts and the deontic/epistemic components of syntax to show that understanding the orientation and direction of the communication in a modal verb is a neccesary requirement for the interpretation of its constitutional import. The book asserts that the nature of authoritative assertiveness of the state in every modern democracy makes the use of modals such as ''shall'', ''will'' and ''may'', which are draconian in provision essential and useful.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is a very complex document due to the great diversity of linguistic situations in Europe. However, thanks to its monitoring system, the treaty has become the most important tool for evaluating linguistic minority policy today. The present thesis aims to explain variation between three contracting parties in compliance with provisions of this treaty. A comparative case study was conducted in order to examine the legal status of linguistic minorities in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Previous research shows that NGOs play an important role in furthering treaty compliance and effectiveness. In order to understand the reasons for countries' divergent compliance levels, three aspects have been considered: (1) The role of the respective NGOs during the ratification process; (2) the factor of decentralized governance; (3) the use of direct democratic instruments.
This study broadens our knowledge in the function and importance of (SMS) Short Message Service, For instance, It is being used as an invitation, for passing information and serving as reminders of invitation, etc. It reveals why some linguistic options were preferred to others in texting. Finally, it enriches the existing literature on the roles linguistics play in teaching and learning of the English Language especially in the ESL situations like Nigeria. This study concerns itself with the linguistic analysis of SMS text messages collected from forty students on the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
Applied Linguistics presents in a most direct and concise manner, some of the essential topics in the area that need the attention of the practitioners across the globe. The reader is introduced to such areas of essential linguistic implications in current research findings that are most relevant to those in applied linguistics as: * a clear distinction between linguistics and applied linguistics, * importance of linguistic insights for proficiency, * TESL teaching methods, contrastive and error analysis, * language testing, L1 and L2 acquisition/ learning, * language theories and the role of context in learning,and * vocabulary in L2 learning. In an unprecedented and lucid style, the book lays bare what the applied linguists especially those in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Teachers, Students and Researchers need.
This book contains an analysis of the structure and use of ideophones - sound-symbolic words evoking sensory imagery - in Katuena (Tunayana), a moribund Amerindian language with only a few remaining speakers. The Katuena language has a large number of ideophones, and these are used both in story-telling and in daily conversation. The first part of this study provides an introduction to the Katuena people, their history and their language, as well as an overview of the literature on ideophones. The second part uses a corpus of the language and interviews with speakers to provide a comprehensive analysis of the phonological and morphological structures of Katuena ideophones, as well as their syntactic characteristics. This is followed up by an analysis of the meanings and uses of ideophones, including the ways in which iconicity contributes to their meanings, and the gestures which frequently accompany these sound-symbolic words. There are very few speakers of Katuena (Tunayana) left, and this language will soon disappear completely. This book and the research contained within it are a small step towards the full documentation of Katuena language and culture.
The organization of the textbooks shows that attention is predominantly given to language skills and functions, with little consideration of grammar and vocabulary. The grammar rules are presented in a deductive approach that gives some explanations of the rules followed by few examples and exercises. The strengths observed in the textbooks are inclusion of topics related to culture, environment, social life, education and other things that are relevant to students'' lives. However, lack of specification and separation of skills and grammar items, lack of useful extensive grammar references, glossaries and other communicative activities as appendices, and lack of summaries in all the units are considered as weaknesses of the textbooks. The textbooks have problems in presenting grammar rules repeatedly in a progressive way in consecutive grades, resulting in problems of rehearsal. Moreover, contexts are not provided for many of the contents of the textbooks: there are no dialogues and/or conversation, language drills, and language games that could make students learn the grammar items with interest.
The research on which this book is based set out to: identify and describe both phonological and grammatical variations in the English spoken by teachers at primary school level in Kenya, Africa; determine how these variations depart from the British standard variety; correlate the linguistic variation observed with the social variables of ethnicity, gender, educational level and rural-urban dichotomy; and discuss the implications of the emergent sociolinguistic patterns for pedagogy in Kenya and by extension, in other non-native multilingual contexts. The general finding is that the English spoken by teachers at primary school level in Kenya varies from the British standard variety - the model that is supposed to be used at all the education tiers in Kenya. This variation cuts across all the social variables investigated. The study argues for the consideration of the sociolinguistic reality of English in Kenya and adoption of a local variety of English, a variety that will be close to other standard varieties, thus making it possible for Kenyan speakers to maintain mutual intelligibility with international speakers of English while maintaining their Kenyan identity.
A language like Gikuyu is the result of human cognition whose structure and function is based on people''s experiences. Some human experiences are too dysphemistic to be discussed without linguistic interdiction. Therefore, a clear understanding of euphemisms will help us uncover how a speaker''s mind works in a cognitive context. This book also identifies the semantic and lexical processes involved in the formation of euphemisms and how these processes blunt the impact of the language to omit specific implication that would unequivocally identify the referent. In addition, this book also looks at the influence of gender in the usage of Gikuyu euphemisms and also accounts for the analysis of euphemisms using the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT). The findings of this study indicate that in spite of a few violations of the tenets of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, CMT gives us insights into the cognitive perspective of euphemisms as a way to attenuate the target domains of death; sexual intercourse; diseases; excretion and body effluvia and anatomy. The findings of this research may be of importance to teachers, court interpreters, media practitioners, counsellors and sex educators.
Language & Style in the Trilogies of Adimora-Ezeigbo and Okekwe is a linguistic-cum-literary interpretation of three novels of Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo - The Last of the Strong Ones, House of Symbols and Children of the Eagle – and those of Promise Ogochukwu Okekwe – Hall of memories, Zita-Zita and Fumes and Cymbals - written in the trilogy tradition. The main approach is stylistics, in which a number of linguistic theories and a literary theory were employed as framework for analysis. The book is written in simple but lucid language for the instruction of students of stylistics and for the consideration of those in the disciplines of language and literature.
The book explores language families in Africa, official languages since independence, language death and dying, and globalization of African languages. The book discusses the role of African universities in revitalizing African languages, indigenous knowledge and education systems. The book also focuses on the role of Afro-centric bilingual lexicography in enhancing social stability and national development with special reference to Kenya. Historical contributions to the African linguistics and lexicography with special emphasis to the historical discourses of the late historical guru Professor Atieno-Odhiambo are also revisited. This is a vital book for general linguistics, historical linguistics and also bilingual lexicography.
This book explores educated young women’s linguistic innovation and performance of non-normative femininity during the Meiji and Taisho periods (1868-1926), by analyzing their letter-writings in readers’ correspondence columns of three prominent women’s magazines. The analysis reveals that innovative language plays a significant role in educated young women’s self-expressions and their construction of a subculture through friendship practices, and identifies the similarities in linguistic innovation and performance of non-normative femininity between contemporary young women and educated young women of these periods. Also, by comparing how innovative language is presented in novels and fiction, I propose dual functions of innovative language; an expression of writer’s identity as a young and modern female writer, and as a yakuwari-go ‘language that fits to a particular character’ (Kinsui 2003). In addition to this historical work, current perspectives of gendered speech styles including “Japanese women’s language” were investigated to how Japanese language learners and instructors perceive these styles and how their perceptions impact upon language pedagogy.
Clint Laurent Tomorrow's World. A Look at the Demographic and Socio-economic Structure of the World in 2032
How the world's demographic and socio-economic landscape will change over the next two decades Tomorrow's World maps out the world's near future through the lens of demography, dealing with issues of health and wealth; death and taxes; buying and selling; education and progress; and how and where we choose to live. The last century saw the world's population quadruple, the emergence of mega-cities and increased urbanisation, and large changes in fertility, mortality, healthcare, education, and income. The world we live in today was profoundly shaped by those changes. This book looks at what's happening now and how demographic changes will reshape the twenty-first century. It highlights the most significant current demographic realities and explains the implications they'll have for our near future. If you run a business, manage a brand, or just want to know what the future looks like, Tomorrow's World is a must-read. A vitally important look at demographic trends how they will effect labour, education, population, economics, and business in this century Written by the founder and Managing Director of Global Demographics Ltd., a leading demographic agency that consults with companies on market and business planning A must-read book for economists, financial analysts, brand managers, and business leaders If you ever wanted to know what tomorrow's world will look like, you have to start by looking at the world today. This book reveals how the experts expect our socio-economic landscape to evolve, identifying threats and opportunities along the way.
This pragmatic analysis of spoken discourse gives insights into the communicative interactional linguistic performance and conventions used within everyday spoken language. The interlocutors, as participants of a community using linguistic interaction as its modus operandi, apply a vast set of rules and linguistic behaviour patterns in order to communicate, convey information, maintain a conversation, and signal all sorts of "codes" which are indispensable in spoken interaction.
Татьяна Олива Моралес The comparative typology of Spanish and English. Texts, story and anecdotes for reading, translating and retelling in Spanish and English, adapted by © Linguistic Rescue method (level A1—A2)
All texts, a story and anecdotes for the translation from Spanish into Russian and English and from English into Spanish of the book adapted by foreign words-tips on © Linguistic Rescue method. There are keys for all the texts, a story and anecdotes. In this book I tried to uncover the main difficulties encountered on the way of learning Spanish and English languages, the difficulties which are the reason of the most common mistakes of the students.