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Jon Gregory Counterparty Credit Risk and Credit Value Adjustment. A Continuing Challenge for Global Financial Markets
A practical guide to counterparty risk management and credit value adjustment from a leading credit practitioner Please note that this second edition of Counterparty Credit Risk and Credit Value Adjustment has now been superseded by an updated version entitled The XVA Challenge: Counterparty Credit Risk, Funding, Collateral and Capital. Since the collapse of Lehman Brothers and the resultant realization of extensive counterparty risk across the global financial markets, the subject of counterparty risk has become an unavoidable issue for every financial institution. This book explains the emergence of counterparty risk and how financial institutions are developing capabilities for valuing it. It also covers portfolio management and hedging of credit value adjustment, debit value adjustment, and wrong-way counterparty risks. In addition, the book addresses the design and benefits of central clearing, a recent development in attempts to control the rapid growth of counterparty risk. This uniquely practical resource serves as an invaluable guide for market practitioners, policy makers, academics, and students.
A detailed, expert-driven guide to today's major financial point of interest The xVA Challenge: Counterparty Credit Risk, Funding, Collateral, and Capital is a practical guide from one of the leading and most influential credit practitioners, Jon Gregory. Focusing on practical methods, this informative guide includes discussion around the latest regulatory requirements, market practice, and academic thinking. Beginning with a look at the emergence of counterparty risk during the recent global financial crisis, the discussion delves into the quantification of firm-wide credit exposure and risk mitigation methods, such as netting and collateral. It also discusses thoroughly the xVA terms, notably CVA, DVA, FVA, ColVA, and KVA and their interactions and overlaps. The discussion of other aspects such as wrong-way risks, hedging, stress testing, and xVA management within a financial institution are covered. The extensive coverage and detailed treatment of what has become an urgent topic makes this book an invaluable reference for any practitioner, policy maker, or student. Counterparty credit risk and related aspects such as funding, collateral, and capital have become key issues in recent years, now generally characterized by the term 'xVA'. This book provides practical, in-depth guidance toward all aspects of xVA management. Market practice around counterparty credit risk and credit and debit value adjustment (CVA and DVA) The latest regulatory developments including Basel III capital requirements, central clearing, and mandatory collateral requirements The impact of accounting requirements such as IFRS 13 Recent thinking on the applications of funding, collateral, and capital adjustments (FVA, ColVA and KVA) The sudden realization of extensive counterparty risks has severely compromised the health of global financial markets. It's now a major point of action for all financial institutions, which have realized the growing importance of consistent treatment of collateral, funding, and capital alongside counterparty risk. The xVA Challenge: Counterparty Credit Risk, Funding, Collateral, and Capital provides expert perspective and real-world guidance for today's institutions.
Jon Gregory Central Counterparties. Mandatory Central Clearing and Initial Margin Requirements for OTC Derivatives
Practical guidance toward handling the latest changes to the OTC derivatives market Central Counterparties is a practical guide to central clearing and bilateral margin requirements, from one of the industry's most influential credit practitioners. With up-to-date information on the latest regulations imposed after the global financial crisis, this book covers the mechanics of the clearing process and analyses the resulting consequences. Detailed discussion explains the ways in which the very significant clearing and margining rules will affect the OTC derivatives market and the financial markets in general, with practical guidance toward implementation and how to handle the potential consequences. Over-the-counter derivatives were blamed by many for playing a major role in the 2007 financial crisis, resulting in a significant attention and dramatic action by policymakers, politicians, and regulators to reduce counterparty credit risk which was seen as a major issue in the crisis. The two most important regulatory changes are the mandatory clearing of standardised OTC derivatives, and the requirements for bilateral margin posting in non-standard OTC contracts. Central Counterparties is a complete reference guide to navigating these changes, providing clarification and practical advice. Review the mitigation of counterparty credit risk with the historical development of central clearing Clarify the latest regulatory requirements imposed by Dodd-Frank, EMIR, Basel III and more Learn the mechanics of central clearing, with special attention to complex issues such as margin calculations, the loss waterfall, client clearing and regulatory capital rules Gain insight into the advantages and disadvantages of clearing and bilateral margin requirements, and the potential issues that arise As the clearing and margining mandates are phased in, the associated costs will be severe enough to dramatically shift the topology of the financial markets and transform the nature of risk. Central Counterparties provides the information, clarification and expert insight market practitioners need to get up to speed quickly.
A comprehensive resource providing extensive coverage of the state of the art in credit secruritisations, derivatives, and risk management Credit Securitisations and Derivatives is a one-stop resource presenting the very latest thinking and developments in the field of credit risk. Written by leading thinkers from academia, the industry, and the regulatory environment, the book tackles areas such as business cycles; correlation modelling and interactions between financial markets, institutions, and instruments in relation to securitisations and credit derivatives; credit portfolio risk; credit portfolio risk tranching; credit ratings for securitisations; counterparty credit risk and clearing of derivatives contracts and liquidity risk. As well as a thorough analysis of the existing models used in the industry, the book will also draw on real life cases to illustrate model performance under different parameters and the impact that using the wrong risk measures can have.
Anthony Saunders Credit Risk Management In and Out of the Financial Crisis. New Approaches to Value at Risk and Other Paradigms
A classic book on credit risk management is updated to reflect the current economic crisis Credit Risk Management In and Out of the Financial Crisis dissects the 2007-2008 credit crisis and provides solutions for professionals looking to better manage risk through modeling and new technology. This book is a complete update to Credit Risk Measurement: New Approaches to Value at Risk and Other Paradigms, reflecting events stemming from the recent credit crisis. Authors Anthony Saunders and Linda Allen address everything from the implications of new regulations to how the new rules will change everyday activity in the finance industry. They also provide techniques for modeling-credit scoring, structural, and reduced form models-while offering sound advice for stress testing credit risk models and when to accept or reject loans. Breaks down the latest credit risk measurement and modeling techniques and simplifies many of the technical and analytical details surrounding them Concentrates on the underlying economics to objectively evaluate new models Includes new chapters on how to prevent another crisis from occurring Understanding credit risk measurement is now more important than ever. Credit Risk Management In and Out of the Financial Crisis will solidify your knowledge of this dynamic discipline.
Credit and credit risk permeates every corner of the financial world. Previously credit tended to be acknowledged only when dealing with counterparty credit risk, high-yield debt or credit-linked derivatives, now it affects all things, including such fundamental concepts as assessing the present value of a future cash flow. The purpose of this book is to analyze credit from the beginning—the point at which any borrowing entity (sovereign, corporate, etc.) decides to raise capital through its treasury operation. To describe the debt management activity, the book presents examples from the development banking world which not only presents a clearer banking structure but in addition sits at the intersection of many topical issues (multi-lateral agencies, quasi-governmental entities, Emerging Markets, shrinking pool of AAA borrowers, etc.). This book covers: Curve construction (instruments, collateralization, discounting, bootstrapping) Credit and fair valuing of loans (modeling, development institutions) Emerging markets and liquidity (liquidity, credit, capital control, development) Bond pricing (credit, illiquid bonds, recovery pricing) Treasury (funding as an asset swap structure, benchmarks for borrowing/investing) Risk and asset liability management (leverage, hedging, funding risk)
Wei Chen Financial Risk Management. Applications in Market, Credit, Asset and Liability Management and Firmwide Risk
A global banking risk management guide geared toward the practitioner Financial Risk Management presents an in-depth look at banking risk on a global scale, including comprehensive examination of the U.S. Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review, and the European Banking Authority stress tests. Written by the leaders of global banking risk products and management at SAS, this book provides the most up-to-date information and expert insight into real risk management. The discussion begins with an overview of methods for computing and managing a variety of risk, then moves into a review of the economic foundation of modern risk management and the growing importance of model risk management. Market risk, portfolio credit risk, counterparty credit risk, liquidity risk, profitability analysis, stress testing, and others are dissected and examined, arming you with the strategies you need to construct a robust risk management system. The book takes readers through a journey from basic market risk analysis to major recent advances in all financial risk disciplines seen in the banking industry. The quantitative methodologies are developed with ample business case discussions and examples illustrating how they are used in practice. Chapters devoted to firmwide risk and stress testing cross reference the different methodologies developed for the specific risk areas and explain how they work together at firmwide level. Since risk regulations have driven a lot of the recent practices, the book also relates to the current global regulations in the financial risk areas. Risk management is one of the fastest growing segments of the banking industry, fueled by banks' fundamental intermediary role in the global economy and the industry's profit-driven increase in risk-seeking behavior. This book is the product of the authors' experience in developing and implementing risk analytics in banks around the globe, giving you a comprehensive, quantitative-oriented risk management guide specifically for the practitioner. Compute and manage market, credit, asset, and liability risk Perform macroeconomic stress testing and act on the results Get up to date on regulatory practices and model risk management Examine the structure and construction of financial risk systems Delve into funds transfer pricing, profitability analysis, and more Quantitative capability is increasing with lightning speed, both methodologically and technologically. Risk professionals must keep pace with the changes, and exploit every tool at their disposal. Financial Risk Management is the practitioner's guide to anticipating, mitigating, and preventing risk in the modern banking industry.
Clark and Mingyuan start with an insightful and comprehensive description of how market participants contributed to the current crisis in the residential mortgage markets and the root causes of the crisis. They then proceed to develop a new residential mortgage lending system that can fix our broken markets because it addresses the root causes. The most impressive attributes of their new system is its commonsense return to the basics of traditional underwriting, combined with factors based on expert judgment and statistics and forward-looking attributes, all of which can be updated as markets change. The whole process is transparent to the borrower, lender, and investor. —Dean Schultz, President and CEO, Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco «The credit market crisis of 2008 has deeply affected the economic lives of every American. Yet, its underlying causes and its surface features are so complex that many observers and even policymakers barely understand them. This timely book will help guide nonspecialists through the workings of financial markets, particularly how they value, price, and distribute risk.» —Professor William Greene, Stern School of Business, New York University «This book is a well-timed departure from much of what is being written today regarding the current foreclosure and credit crisis. Rather than attempting to blame lenders, borrowers, and/or federal regulators for the mortgage meltdown and the subsequent impacts on the financial markets, Clark and Mingyuan have proposed a groundbreaking new framework to revolutionize our current lending system. The book is built on the authors' deep understanding of risk and the models used for credit analysis, and reflects their commitment to solve the problem. What I find most profound is their passion to develop a system that will facilitate new and better investment, especially in underserved urban markets that have been disproportionately impacted in the current crisis. I applaud the authors for this important work, and urge practitioners and theorists alike to investigate this new approach.» —John Talmage, President and CEO, Social Compact «In the wake of the credit crisis, it is clear that transparency is the key to not repeating history. In Credit Risk Assessment: The New Lending System for Borrowers, Lenders and Investors, Clark Abrahams and Mingyuan Zhang describe a new lending framework that seeks to connect all the players in the lending chain and provide a more holistic view of customers' risk potential. As the financial services industry recovers from the mortgage meltdown, the Abrahams/Zhang lending model certainly offers some new food for thought to laymen and professionals alike.» —Maria Bruno-Britz, Senior Editor, Bank Systems & Technology magazine
An accessible and detailed overview of the risks posed by financial institutions Understanding Systemic Risk in Global Financial Markets offers an accessible yet detailed overview of the risks to financial stability posed by financial institutions designated as systemically important. The types of firms covered are primarily systemically important banks, non-banks, and financial market utilities such as central counterparties. Written by Aron Gottesman and Michael Leibrock, experts on the topic of systemic risk, this vital resource puts the spotlight on coherency, practitioner relevance, conceptual explanations, and practical exposition. Step by step, the authors explore the specific regulations enacted before and after the credit crisis of 2007-2009 to promote financial stability. The text also examines the criteria used by financial regulators to designate firms as systemically important. The quantitative and qualitative methods to measure the ongoing risks posed by systemically important financial institutions are surveyed. A review of the regulations that identify systemically important financial institutions The tools to use to detect early warning indications of default A review of historical systemic events their common causes Techniques to measure interconnectedness Approaches for ranking the order the institutions which pose the greatest degree of default risk to the industry Understanding Systemic Risk in Global Financial Markets offers a must-have guide to the fundamentals of systemic risk and the key critical policies that work to reduce systemic risk and promoting financial stability.
The credit derivatives industry has come under close scrutiny over the past few years, with the recent financial crisis highlighting the instability of a number of credit structures and throwing the industry into turmoil. What has been made clear by recent events is the necessity for a thorough understanding of credit derivatives by all parties involved in a transaction, especially traders, structurers, quants and investors. Fully revised and updated to take in to account the new products, markets and risk requirements post financial crisis, Credit Derivatives: Trading, Investing and Risk Management, Second Edition, covers the subject from a real world perspective, tackling issues such as liquidity, poor data, and credit spreads, to the latest innovations in portfolio products, hedging and risk management techniques. The book concentrates on practical issues and develops an understanding of the products through applications and detailed analysis of the risks and alternative means of trading. It provides: a description of the key products, applications, and an analysis of typical trades including basis trading, hedging, and credit structuring; analysis of the industry standard 'default and recovery' and Copula models including many examples, and a description of the models' shortcomings; tools and techniques for the management of a portfolio or book of credit risks including appropriate and inappropriate methods of correlation risk management; a thorough analysis of counterparty risk; an intuitive understanding of credit correlation in reality and in the Copula model. The book is thoroughly updated to reflect the changes the industry has seen over the past 5 years, notably with an analysis of the lead up and causes of the credit crisis. It contains 50% new material, which includes copula valuation and hedging, portfolio optimisation, portfolio products and correlation risk management, pricing in illiquid environments, chapters on the evolution of credit management systems, the credit meltdown and new chapters on the implementation and testing of credit derivative models and systems. The book is accompanied by a website which contains tools for credit derivatives valuation and risk management, illustrating the models used in the book and also providing a valuation toolkit.
Kenji Imai Advanced Financial Risk Management. Tools and Techniques for Integrated Credit Risk and Interest Rate Risk Management
Practical tools and advice for managing financial risk, updated for a post-crisis world Advanced Financial Risk Management bridges the gap between the idealized assumptions used for risk valuation and the realities that must be reflected in management actions. It explains, in detailed yet easy-to-understand terms, the analytics of these issues from A to Z, and lays out a comprehensive strategy for risk management measurement, objectives, and hedging techniques that apply to all types of institutions. Written by experienced risk managers, the book covers everything from the basics of present value, forward rates, and interest rate compounding to the wide variety of alternative term structure models. Revised and updated with lessons from the 2007-2010 financial crisis, Advanced Financial Risk Management outlines a framework for fully integrated risk management. Credit risk, market risk, asset and liability management, and performance measurement have historically been thought of as separate disciplines, but recent developments in financial theory and computer science now allow these views of risk to be analyzed on a more integrated basis. The book presents a performance measurement approach that goes far beyond traditional capital allocation techniques to measure risk-adjusted shareholder value creation, and supplements this strategic view of integrated risk with step-by-step tools and techniques for constructing a risk management system that achieves these objectives. Practical tools for managing risk in the financial world Updated to include the most recent events that have influenced risk management Topics covered include the basics of present value, forward rates, and interest rate compounding; American vs. European fixed income options; default probability models; prepayment models; mortality models; and alternatives to the Vasicek model Comprehensive and in-depth, Advanced Financial Risk Management is an essential resource for anyone working in the financial field.
Sylvain Bouteille The Handbook of Credit Risk Management. Originating, Assessing, and Managing Credit Exposures
A comprehensive guide to credit risk management The Handbook of Credit Risk Management presents a comprehensive overview of the practice of credit risk management for a large institution. It is a guide for professionals and students wanting a deeper understanding of how to manage credit exposures. The Handbook provides a detailed roadmap for managing beyond the financial analysis of individual transactions and counterparties. Written in a straightforward and accessible style, the authors outline how to manage a portfolio of credit exposures–from origination and assessment of credit fundamentals to hedging and pricing. The Handbook is relevant for corporations, pension funds, endowments, asset managers, banks and insurance companies alike. Covers the four essential aspects of credit risk management: Origination, Credit Risk Assessment, Portfolio Management and Risk Transfer. Provides ample references to and examples of credit market services as a resource for those readers having credit risk responsibilities. Designed for busy professionals as well as finance, risk management and MBA students. As financial transactions grow more complex, proactive management of credit portfolios is no longer optional for an institution, but a matter of survival.
Financial risk has become a focus of financial and nonfinancial firms, individuals, and policy makers. But the study of risk remains a relatively new discipline in finance and continues to be refined. The financial market crisis that began in 2007 has highlighted the challenges of managing financial risk. Now, in Financial Risk Management, author Allan Malz addresses the essential issues surrounding this discipline, sharing his extensive career experiences as a risk researcher, risk manager, and central banker. The book includes standard risk measurement models as well as alternative models that address options, structured credit risks, and the real-world complexities or risk modeling, and provides the institutional and historical background on financial innovation, liquidity, leverage, and financial crises that is crucial to practitioners and students of finance for understanding the world today. Financial Risk Management is equally suitable for firm risk managers, economists, and policy makers seeking grounding in the subject. This timely guide skillfully surveys the landscape of financial risk and the financial developments of recent decades that culminated in the crisis. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the different types of financial risk we face, as well as the techniques used to measure and manage them. Topics covered include: Market risk, from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to risk models for options Credit risk, from portfolio credit risk to structured credit products Model risk and validation Risk capital and stress testing Liquidity risk, leverage, systemic risk, and the forms they take Financial crises, historical and current, their causes and characteristics Financial regulation and its evolution in the wake of the global crisis And much more Combining the more model-oriented approach of risk management-as it has evolved over the past two decades-with an economist's approach to the same issues, Financial Risk Management is the essential guide to the subject for today's complex world.
A top risk management practitioner addresses the essential aspects of modern financial risk management In the Second Edition of Financial Risk Management + Website, market risk expert Steve Allen offers an insider's view of this discipline and covers the strategies, principles, and measurement techniques necessary to manage and measure financial risk. Fully revised to reflect today's dynamic environment and the lessons to be learned from the 2008 global financial crisis, this reliable resource provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field of risk management. Allen explores real-world issues such as proper mark-to-market valuation of trading positions and determination of needed reserves against valuation uncertainty, the structuring of limits to control risk taking, and a review of mathematical models and how they can contribute to risk control. Along the way, he shares valuable lessons that will help to develop an intuitive feel for market risk measurement and reporting. Presents key insights on how risks can be isolated, quantified, and managed from a top risk management practitioner Offers up-to-date examples of managing market and credit risk Provides an overview and comparison of the various derivative instruments and their use in risk hedging Companion Website contains supplementary materials that allow you to continue to learn in a hands-on fashion long after closing the book Focusing on the management of those risks that can be successfully quantified, the Second Edition of Financial Risk Management + Websiteis the definitive source for managing market and credit risk.
Ioannis Akkizidis Marketplace Lending, Financial Analysis, and the Future of Credit. Integration, Profitability, and Risk Management
The time for financial technology innovation is now Marketplace Lending, Financial Analysis, and the Future of Credit clearly explains why financial credit institutions need to further innovate within the financial technology arena. Through this text, you access a framework for applying innovative strategies in credit services. Provided and supported by financial institutions and entrepreneurs, the information in this engaging book encompasses printed guidance and digital ancillaries. Peer-to-peer lenders are steadily growing within the financial market. Integrating peer-to-peer lending into established credit institutions could strengthen the financial sector as a whole, and could lead to the incorporation of stronger risk and profitability management strategies. Explain (or Explore) approaches and challenges in financial analysis applied to credit risk and profitability Explore additional information provided via digital ancillaries, which will further support your understanding and application of key concepts Navigate the information organised into three subject areas: describing a new business model, knowledge integration, and proposing a new model for the Hybrid Financial Sector Understand how the rise of fintech fits into context within the current financial system Follow discussion of the current status quo and role of innovation in the financial industry, and consider the financial technology innovation landscape from the perspective of an entrepreneur Marketplace Lending, Financial Analysis, and the Future of Credit is a critical text that bridges the gap in understanding between financial technology entrepreneurs and credit institutions.