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This Book focuses on the Credit and Risk Analysis carried out by the Banks during appraisal of a loan proposals for Large Corporates i.e., with a turnover of above 500 crores. The Book focusses about the fundamental aspects involved in the Credit Appraisal and associated Risk Management. The Book deals from the perspective of a Bank and the Regulatory Norms as stipulated by the Regulator of Banking System in India i.e., Reserve Bank of India. The report is a descriptive study with basic objective of understanding procedural aspects involved in the Credit Appraisal and Risk Management before and after sanctioning of Bank Credit to the Large Corporate enterprises. During Credit Appraisal, Bank needs to do a 360° assessment of the proposal submitted by the Corporate by verifying its managerial integrity and commercial, technical, financial viability. It has been observed that the Credit risk management enables bank to identify, assess, manage proactively, and optimize their credit risk.
'Analysis on credit concentration risk and NPA in Bank's Portfolio' analyzes the credit portfolio composition of a large and medium sized commercial bank in India to understand the nature and dimensions of industry –wise credit concentration risk and also evaluates its influence on Non-Performing Assets of the banks. The required data for this study was collected from industry-wise loan exposures of Indian Overseas Bank and yearly NPAs of the bank. The industry-wise credit concentration risk for each year is calculated by using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI index). Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was run on SPSS 19.0 to quantify the relationship between the credit concentration risk and Non-Performing Assets of the commercial bank. The results indicate that there exists a strong positive relationship between the industry-wise concentration risk and NPA of the commercial bank. Hence it is highly desirable for the commercial banks to have a diversified portfolio in order to reduce their Non –Performing Assets.
For all countries especially developing countries, banking system is the main component of the financial system.Hence, researchers and regulation authorities have focused on a banking system as a main cause or preventing factor responsible for financial and economic crises. This study presents comprehensive analysis of overall risk level, market risk and how selected variables affect credit risk in the Jordanian banks. This study provides a new theoretical background to understand how an overall level of banks risk and market risk has changed during 1995-2008. It also identifies the variables affecting credit risk in the Jordanian banks.The outcome of this study would increase the understanding and awareness of banks'' management about the adverse effect of credit risk on their profit. Further, it helps the managers to minimize the credit risk level and improve their appropriate lending policies by taking in their consideration the significant variables that are identified by this study. In addition, the results of this study help supervising authorities to ensure that adequate policies and procedures are in place at various banks to minimize risks as far as possible.
This is an academic article that contains the real life day to day working experience of different tasks in Credit Department of Dhaka Bank Limited, KDA Avenue Branch. Provided detailed information about the organization with its company profile, Corporate Vision and Mission, product & service and resources.Discussed about the overall credit risk grading processes of DBL which starts with the branch and done fully under head office’s credit department.The whole system has been described elaborately keeping in mind the most important segments. In addition the diagrams Credit Risk Grading score sheet add a clear understanding of the system.
In view of growing complexity of banks’ business and the dynamic operating environment, risk management has become very significant, especially in the financial sector. Risk at the apex level may be visualized as the probability of a banks’ financial health being impaired due to one or more contingent factors. While the parameters indicating the banks’ health may vary from net interest margin to market value of equity, the factor which can cause the important are also numerous. For management of risk at corporate level, various risks like credit risk, market risk or operational risk have to be converted into one composite measure. Therefore, it is necessary that measurement of operational risk should be in tandem with other measurements of credit and market risk so that the requisite composite estimate can be worked out. So, regarding to international banking rule (Basel Committee Accords) and RBI guidelines the investigation of risk analysis and risk management in Co-Op banks is being most important.
Risk Management is one of the challenging tasks in financial industries. In banking system risk occurs due to internal and external factors, like government intervention with fiscal policies. To measure the efficiency of banks we need to identify the risk factors in banks. Impact of this risk factors is disentangle from overall efficiency. Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and (Data Envelopment Analysis)are two major techniques used to measure the efficiency of organizational units where multiple inputs and outputs makes comparison difficult. This thesis explains about the DEA analysis, how to assess and disentangle the risk factors effect from overall efficiency in different stages. DEAP,EMS and QSB are some of the computer oriented programmes useful in calculating efficiency. SAS is also one of the major high level programming language useful to solve linear and non-linear programming techniques. The ultimate objective is to identify which banks were seriously affecting with this risk factors.
This book provides a model of Z Score prediction conditional on internal parameters of Z Score. Z Score is being evaluated for banks when they need funds. Credit risk is of great concern for most banks as credit risk is that risk that can easily and most likely prompts banks failure. Adequately managing credit risk in financial institutes is critical for survival and growth of the banking industry. Addressing these concerns for enhanced financial decision making in this analysis Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used for prediction and estimation of internal ratios for Z score. The sample size selected is a few major players both in the government and private sector of Indian Banking Industry. The analysis incorporates Z Score values to estimate the terms, viability and period for credit.
Banking sector is suffering a huge chunk of non-performing loan in Pakistan, Due to this profitability and survivals of banks are at risk in Pakistan. “A large number of banks in economies like Thailand, Indonesia, Japan and Mexico experienced a high level of non-performing loan and has faced a significant increase in credit risk during the financial and banking crisis. Due to these financial and economic crises many banks closed down their operations in Indonesia and Thailand (Ahmad & Arif, 2007)”. Keeping in consideration to increase in non-performing in Pakistan, study will explore the relationship between Credit Risk and performance of banking sector.By providing reliable data and evidences about the credit risk and its consequences on banks performance in Pakistan, it is clear that how this important factor non- performing loans (NPLs) is influencing the performance of the banks in Pakistan. It also contributes in addressing the problem and finding a research based solution to the problem of non-performing loans in Pakistani banking context. It also contributes efforts toward the financial risk management strategies and techniques.
This monograph focuses on the liquidity risk of commercial banks in the Visegrad countries in the period from 2000 to 2011. This risk is comprehensively evaluated with several different methods: six liquidity ratios, panel data regression analysis with fixed effects, probit model and scenario analysis. The liquidity position, net position on the interbank market and strategy of liquidity risk management differ significantly in individual Visegrad countries. The capital adequacy is the most important determinant of bank liquidity. However, some other factors such as size of the bank, credit portfolio quality or macroeconomic development are significant as well. All three tested stress scenarios would have a negative influence on bank liquidity. A run on the bank would have most serious impact on the bank liquidity in all Visegrad countries. The use of committed loans is the second most severe scenario for Czech and Slovak banks and a crisis confidence in the interbank market for Hungarian and Polish banks.
This book discusses on the ‘Corporate Credit Risk of Indian Manufacturing Companies: Towards an Early Warning System’. Devised for the analysis of financial health of the Indian manufacturing firms, it aims to pave a path towards designing a EWS by identifying the essential variables and hence assess the credit worthiness of the firms and avert a default. Most of the research on bankruptcy or default is done for the developed nations whereas it’s meagre in India due to lack of data and proper bankruptcy laws. In the present study the popular and robust Z score model is developed for the listed manufacturing firms in India and then DEA is used to assess their technical efficiencies. The rating agencies can incorporate these technical efficiencies in their ratings methodologies. Finally the study looks into the impact of macroeconomic factors on the firms’ financial health. This book is meant for those who are interested in learning about the financial health of listed firms i.e. Banks, Financial Institutions and Investors, for those undertaking research in Credit risk, CRAs and for the policy makers.
SMEs often have to face restricted access to bank loans. This is particularly due for those SMEs that cannot provide enough valuable collateral. By underwriting a certain share of the overall risk of the loan amount, German guarantee banks facilitate the access to bank finance of SMEs with no or not enough valuable collateral. To justify this governmental intervention, guarantee banks need to be evaluated regularly. This book presents a unique research approach to evaluate the impact of German guarantee banks on the access to bank finance for SMEs by testing the ability of guarantee banks to compensate collateral shortfalls and make available loans to SMEs. Moreover, this book extends existing literature by analysing the ability of guarantee banks to reduce information asymmetries, create lending relationships and mitigate credit restrictions immediately as well as in a sustainable way. This analysis should be especially useful for policy makers, bank managers deciding about granting loans to SMEs, and for SMEs to learn about possibilities to mitigate credit restrictions.
Over the last years, the use of credit insurance has become even more vital since it also helped financial institutions reduce their risk-weighted assets by way of risk mitigation. Historically, credit insurance was a way to minimize the counterpart and country (political) risks; however, under Basel II and III provisions, it helps banks to optimize their capital adequacy as well. This qualitative research study elaborates the economis aspects, capital relief of European banks in addition to the risk mitigation funtion of credit insurance. The study is a real-life and professional business life driven so that business professionals, too, would benefit from this research study. The paper, based on the true experience of different bankers in Europe reports that credit insurance mostly accomplishes the targets of financial institutions in order to opmize their portfolio, reduce risk-weighted assets and relieve their capital. This study would help risk managers, business experts and any other involved parties in credit insurance, align with the business practices of other and similar institutions.
Target oriented approach in Indian banks has eroded the quality of lending, leading to high level of NPAs that has resulted in negative impact on their profitability due to the necessity of provisions, recoveries and write offs as per RBI guidelines. NPAs also negatively impact the capital adequacy ratio, net worth and credibility of banks. Rising NPAs have direct impact on the bottom line as legally banks cannot book income on such accounts. Indian banks need to be more proactive in all their operations, particularly risk identification and management, to operate profitably in the prevailing milieu. The book discusses credit risk, which is one of the major risks faced by Indian banks because lending policy is a significant driver of NPAs. Analysis reveals that there is a rising cause for concern about NPAs. The parameters indicate a need for initiating strategic imperatives at both micro and macro levels, failing which the situation can spiral out of control. The book is written with the express purpose of analyzing trends in NPAs in Indian banks and putting forth useful suggestions for managing credit risk. It should be of use to banking professionals and finance students.
In Banking, Asset and Liability Management (often abbreviated ALM) is the practice of managing risks that arise due to mismatches between the assets and liabilities (debts and assets) of the bank. Banks face several risks such as the liquidity risk, interest rate risk, credit risk and operational risk. Asset liability management (ALM) is a strategic management tool to manage interest rate risk and liquidity risk faced by banks, other financial services companies and corporations. Banks manage the risks of asset liability mismatch by matching the assets and liabilities according to the maturity pattern or the matching of the duration, by hedging and by securitization. . Modern risk management now takes place from an integrated approach to enterprise risk management that reflects the fact that interest rate risk, credit risk, market risk, and liquidity risk are all interrelated.
All praise and thanks to Allah Almighty who graced me with the strength and guidance for completing this research. This book aimed to explain the loan evaluation method known as credit scoring. Credit scoring is a technique that helps banks decides whether to grant credit to applicants who apply to them or not. The main objective of the research was to evaluate credit risk in commercial banks of Pakistan using credit scoring models. Two credit scoring models were developed to assess the creditworthiness of the bank’s credit applications. It is highly recommended that commercial banks should use these proposed credit scoring models as a part of their evaluation process. By adopting these models banks can reduce their non performing loans. The proposed models have included all the factors that banks consider but in a systematic way.